A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil. A cataract usually begins when proteins in the eye form clumps that prevent the lens from sending clear images to the retina. The retina works by converting the light that comes through the lens into signals. It sends the signals to the optic nerve, which carries them to the brain. Cataracts usually develop slowly and eventually interfere with your vision. You may develop cataracts in both eyes, either concurrently or sequentially. Cataracts are common in people over 40 years old.
Glaucoma is an eye condition that damages the optic nerve, the nerve which supplies visual information to your brain from your eyes. Glaucoma is usually a result of abnormally high pressure inside your eye.
The back of your eye continuously makes a clear fluid called aqueous humor. As this fluid is made, it fills the front part of your eye. The fluid then leaves your eye through channels in your iris and cornea. If these channels are blocked or partially obstructed, the natural pressure in your eye, which is called the intraocular pressure (IOP), may increase. As your IOP increases, your optic nerve may become damaged. As damage to your nerve progresses, you may begin losing sight in your eye.
Age-related macular degeneration
While there are many causes of macular degeneration, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD) is by far the most common type. AMD is a disease associated with ageing, that gradually destroys the sharp central vision that is needed for seeing objects clearly and for everyday tasks such as reading and driving. In some cases, AMD advances so slowly that people notice little change in their vision. In others, the disease progresses faster and may lead to a loss of vision in one or both eyes.
REFRACTIVE ERRORS/VISION PROBLEMS
The most common vision problems are caused by refractive errors – which means that the shape of your eye does not bend light correctly, resulting in a blurred image. Refractive disorders are usually the result of an eyeball that is too short or too long, a cornea (the clear front part of your eye) that is irregularly shaped, or a lens that is curved too much or too little. The main types of refractive errors are myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia /(farsightedness), presbyopia (loss of near vision with age), and astigmatism.
DIABETIC EYE DISEASE
Diabetic eye disease — known by its medical term, diabetic retinopathy — is an eye issue that specifically affects people who have Diabetes. If you have Diabetes, you should receive specialised screenings regularly. At our Midrand and Pretoria practices, Dr Boitumelo Khantsi offers comprehensive Diabetic Eye Exams for patients who have Diabetes.
Diabetic eye disease affects blood vessels in your retina, located in the back of your eyeball. The condition is the most common cause of permanent vision loss for people who have Diabetes, and it’s the leading cause of blindness among adults over the age of 20.